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Types of Stone

Marble

A rock composed in large part of calcite or dolomite crystals, being the result of metamorphism (heat, pressure and time) of limestone. The term marble is loosely applied to most limestone or calcium carbonate stone that takes a good polish and is otherwise suitable as a building or ornamental stone. It can also be honed for a subtle satin look. A semi-soft stone susceptible to light abrasion and acid etching.

Travertine

Crystalline limestone composed mostly of calcium carbonate with a layered structure. Formed in ground springs, gases, air and water have created holes, voids and cavities in the rock, which gives travertine its unique appearance. It can be honed or polished with the voids factory filled or unfilled. Also a semi-soft stone susceptible to light abrasion and acid etching.

Limestone

A sedimentary stone composed mostly of calcium carbonate. It is ordinarily white but may be colored by iron oxide making it brown, yellow, or red and carbon making it blue, black, or gray. Usually honed, some limestone can be polished. A semi-soft stone susceptible to light abrasion and acid etching.

Granite

A coarse-grained igneous rock of even texture, composed chiefly of quartz, feldspars and small quantities of mica. It is found in a variety of colors. It is commonly believed to have formed from molten rock under pressure. Usually polished from the factory, it is one of the hardest building stones and is not susceptible to light abrasion or most acids.

Onyx

A sedimentary calcite stone. Known as semi-precious agate it comes in unique and often translucent colors of green, white, yellow, brown and black. Polished to a high gloss it is often backlit to display its colors. It is a soft stone and very susceptible to light abrasions and acid etching.

Terrazzo

Marble chips set in cement or epoxy resin. Although tiles are available it is traditionally poured and ground smooth. Available in many colors, it forms hard, smooth surfaces. It can be honed or polished. Harder than calcium stones, it is less susceptible to light abrasion or acid spills.

Cantera

A sedimentary stone formed from volcanic ash compressed over time in silt beds. It is found in a wide variety of colors and textures. Used often for fountains, columns and decorative accents. It is susceptible to light abrasion and strong acids, but when sealed performs well in most applications. A topical sealer can be applied for some interior applications to increase surface luster and ease of maintenance.

Slate

A metamorphic crystalline rock derived from shale. It comes primarily with a cleft surface in a variety of colors. Some slates are gauged (factory cut) for size, while others are hand-cut and vary in thickness. It is susceptible to light abrasion but will not readily show ware. A topical sealer can be applied for interior applications to increase surface luster and ease of maintenance.


Fossil / Shell Stone

A sedimentary calcite stone with shells embedded in its body. White to gold in color it is very porous and displays a rough to honed finish depending on density. It is susceptible to light abrasion and acids but hides wear well. A topical sealer can be applied for some interior applications to increase surface luster and ease of maintenance.

Quartzite

A metamorphic sandstone composed primarily of silica with some calcium carbonate and quartz. It appears clefted like slate but is much harder with greater density. It is not susceptible to light abrasion or acids. It comes in tiled or puzzled installations. A topical sealer can be applied for interior applications to increase surface luster and ease of maintenance.

Flagstone / Sandstone

It is a sedimentary rock composed mostly of sand grains, cemented silica or calcium carbonate. Most sand grains contain quartz, feldspars and mica. Iron also occurs, which gives sandstone a reddish or brownish color. Most sandstone is formed through the accumulation of river sediments on the seabed which are compressed to form the rock. Displaying a rough and cleft surface they come in tiled or puzzled installations. A topical sealer can be applied for interior applications to increase surface luster and ease of maintenance.

Ceramic / Porcelain Tile

Clay or porcelain substrate with a factory fired ceramic face for the surface. Man made in a variety of colors, textures and sizes. Its hardened surface is durable and usually the grout is the only part of these tiles that require sealing or detailed maintenance. Porcelain without a ceramic finish should be sealed to restrict absorption of liquids or oils.